In a royal decree issued on Thursday, King Salman of Saudi Arabia ousted his nephew Mohammed bin Nayef as crown prince, replacing him with his son Mohammed bin Salman. The unprecedented move has been viewed by many as corollary of the kingdom’s changing political landscape.
Protest graffiti in Barbar village, Bahrain, by the ‘Ahrar Barbar’ movement
Since February 14 2011, Bahrain has experienced heightened social tensions following on the series of popular revolts that began in Tunisia in 2010 and have since profoundly affected much of the Middle East and North Africa. Bahrain’s uprising, which culminated in a massive protest around the capital Manama’s most famous landmark, the Pearl Roundabout, was quashed in a matter of
Iran’s domestic landscape on the social, political, and educational (including scientific) fronts have been altered considerably by the eight-year war with Iraq (1980-88). These changes have simultaneously challenged Iran on different directions both domestically and in the international arena.
Post-War Social Mobility
On the eve of its revolution in 1979, the demographics of Iran indicated that the country was primarily rural, with about 75-80% of its population (of around 35 million at the time) living in rural areas and the remaining 20-25% making the urban population.